Hepatitis virus C

The hepatitis C virus is a small, enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus. It is the only known member of the hepacivirus genus in the family Flaviviridae. There are six major genotypes of the hepatitis C virus, which are indicated numerically (e.g., genotype 1, genotype 2, etc.). Based on the NS5 gene there are three major and eleven minor genotypes. HCV genotype matters because it can affect how successful a person's hepatitis C treatment will likely be and how long the hepatitis C medication will need to be taken.

Hepatitis C is an infectious disease primarily affecting the liver, caused by the HCV. HCV is transmitted by blood-to-blood contact. In developed countries, it is estimated that 90% of persons with chronic HCV infection were infected through transfusion of unscreened blood or blood products or via injecting drug use or sexual exposure. The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can lead to scarring of the liver and ultimately to cirrhosis, which is generally apparent after many years. In some cases, those with cirrhosis will go on to develop liver failure or other complications, including liver cancer or life-threatening esophageal varices and gastric varices. During the first 12 weeks after infection with HCV, most people suffer no symptoms. For those who do, the main manifestations of acute infection are generally mild and vague and rarely point to a specific diagnosis of hepatitis C. Symptoms of acute HCV infection include decreased appetite, fatigue, abdominal pain, jaundice, itching and flu-like symptoms.

HCV is usually detectable in the blood by PCR within one to three weeks after infection and antibodies to the virus are generally detectable within three to 15 weeks. Liver enzyme tests show variable elevation of ALT and AST. Periodically, they might show normal results. Usually prothrombin and albumin results are normal, but may become abnormal, once cirrhosis has developed. The levels of elevation of liver tests do not correlate well with the amount of liver injury on biopsy. Viral genotype and viral load also do not correlate with the amount of liver injury. Liver biopsy is the best test to determine the amount of scarring and inflammation.

The natural course of chronic hepatitis C varies considerably from one person to another. Although almost all people infected with HCV have evidence of inflammation on liver biopsy, the rate of progression of liver scarring (fibrosis) shows significant variability among individuals.

Once chronic hepatitis C has progressed to cirrhosis, signs and symptoms may appear that are generally caused by either decreased liver function or increased pressure in the liver circulation, a condition known as portal hypertension. Possible signs and symptoms of liver cirrhosis include accumulation of fluid in the abdomen, bruising and bleeding tendency, varices (especially in the stomach and esophagus), jaundice and syndrome of cognitive impairment known as hepatic encephalopathy. Hepatic encephalopathy is due to the accumulation of ammonia and other substances normally cleared by a healthy liver.

HCV-FRT PCR kit (R-V1-Mod) is qualitative test for detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in the clinical materials (blood plasma). Present Internal Control allows to determine the RNA extraction efficiency, as well as Reverse transcription and cDNA amplification steps. The analytical sensitivity depends on the clinical sample volume and is 100 IU/ml (if the sample volume is 100 μl) or 10 IU (if the sample volume is 1000 μl). For detection, FAM/Green and JOE/Yellow/HEX channels are needed.

HCV-Monitor-FRT PCR kit (R-V1-MC) is for quantitative detection of HCV RNA in the clinical material. The linear measurement range depends on the clinical sample volume and is 300 -100.000.000 IU/ml (if the volume is 100 μl) or 150- 100.000.000 IU (if the volume is 200 μl) or 30-100.000.000 (if the volume is 1000 μl). For detection, 2 channels - FAM/Green and JOE/Yellow/HEX are needed. 

HCV-genotype-FRT 1-6 PCR kit (R-V1-G(1-6)-2x) allows detection and discrimination of HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2, 3a, 4, 5a and 6. For detection, FAM/Green and JOE/Yellow/HEX channels are needed. 

HCV-genotype-FRT 1-4 PCR kit (R-V1-G(1-4)-2x) allows detection and discrimination of HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2, 3a and 4. For detection, FAM/Green and JOE/Yellow/HEX channels are needed.

HCV-1/2/3-FRT PCR kit (R-V1-G-4x) allows detection and discrimination of HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 3. For detection, FAM/Green (1), JOE/Yellow/HEX (2), ROX/Orange (3) and Cy5/Red (Internal Control) channels are needed. 

New CE
Type Pack Cat. No. Name Description Kit
No. of
 CE Real Time PCR Only R-O5-100-F(RG,iQ,Dt,CFX)-CEGenoscreen-IL28B-FRT
Real Time PCR kit for detection of SNP rs8099917 and rs12979860 in Interleukin-28B geneNon-aliquoted110
   Real Time RT+PCRR-V1-Mod(RG,iQ,Mx,Dt)-CEHCV-FRT
HCV One-Step RT-PCR kit.Non-aliquoted112
   Real Time RT+PCRR-V1-G-4х(RG,iQ,Mx)-CEHCV-1/2/3-FRT
HCV One-Step RT-PCR kit for HCV Genotyping (genotypes 1, 2, 3) in one tube. 4 optical channels are required.Non-aliquoted55
New  Real Time PCR Only R-V1-G(1-4)-2х(RG,iQ,Mx,Dt,SC)-CEHCV-genotype-FRT
HCV cDNA Real Time amplification kit for HCV Genotyping (genotypes 1а, 1b, 2, 3a, 4). 2 optical channels are required (without Reverse transcription kit)Non-aliquoted55
   Real Time PCR Only R-V1-G(1-6)-2х(RG,iQ,Mx,Dt,SC)-CEHCV-genotype-FRT
HCV cDNA Real Time amplification kit for HCV Genotyping (genotypes 1а, 1b, 2, 3a, 4, 5a, 6). 2 optical channels are required (without Reverse transcription kit)
   Real Time RT+PCRR-V1-MC(RG,iQ,Mx,Dt)-CEHCV-Monitor-FRT
HCV One-Step RT-PCR kit. QUANTITATIVE. Includes Calibrator for internal control coefficient calculationNon-aliquoted80 (48 clinical samples)
   Elfo PCR Only V1-G50-R0,2-CEHCV-genotype-EPh
HCV cDNA amplification kit for HCV Genotyping (genotypes 1a, 1b, 2, 3а) (without Reverse transcription kit)Aliquoted in tubes55
Real TimeFEP KitsElectrophoresis KitsAla 1/4 Detector